Friday, August 31, 2018

Inspiration and perspiration, Part 8: Some Latin verbs that had nouns with the suffix -ĭōn-

[This entry comes from Chapter 10, "Inspiration and Perspiration", of Part II of the open-source textbook Spanish-English Cognates: An Unconventional Introduction to Spanish Linguistics.]

Latin verbs that had nouns with the suffix -ĭōn-

In Figure 119 above we saw a number of English nouns in ‑ation along with the verbs that they were associated with. For the most part, the Latin ancestors of those nouns were derived from the Latin ancestors of those verbs, which explains the connection. In this section, we are going to look at the verbs on that list and at their relation to the nouns in question. First, we will look at the several verbs that share the same Latin root, namely spīr‑, which was primarily a verbal root with the meaning ‘to breathe’. After that, we will briefly look at the other verbs.

Lat. spīrāre and derived verbs: The root -spir-

Introduction: Lat. spīrāre

Among the words in ‑ation in the comic strip in Figure 119 above, there are three that contain the Latin root morpheme ‑spir‑, including the two in the title of this chapter and in the original Edison quote mentioned earlier, inspiration and perspiration (the third one is aspiration). This was, most basically, the root of the first conjugation Latin verb spīrāre (principal parts: spīrō, spīrāre, spīrāvī, spīrātum). This verb meant primarily ‘to breathe’ and ‘to blow’, though it had some figurative (metaphorical) senses as well, such as ‘to be alive’ or ‘to be inspired’.

Several additional Latin verbs were derived from the verb spīrāre by prefixation. With different prefixes this verb took diverse meanings, some literal and some figurative, and some of them have been passed on to us, as we can see in Table 162 below.

Pref.

Latin
Literal and figurative meanings
Spanish
English

spīrāre
‘to blow, to breathe, etc.’
espirar
spire
in
‘in’
inspīrāre
‘to breathe in(to); inspire; excite; etc.’
inspirar
inspire
ex
‘out’
exspīrāre
‘to breathe out, exhale; to die’
expirar
expire
re
‘again’
respīrāre
‘to breathe (in and out repeatedly)’
respirar
respire
ad
‘to’
adspīrāre
‘to breathe upon; to seek, to attain’
aspirar
aspire
per
‘through’
perspīrāre
‘to blow constantly’
perspire
trans
‘across’
transpīrāre
(Med.Lat) ‘to breather through/across’
transpirar
transpire
com
‘with’
conspīrāre
‘to breathe together; to be in harmony’
conspirar
conspire
Table 162: Verbs derived from Lat. spīrāre and their descendants

The basic (un-prefixed) verb spīrāre has given us Sp. espirar, which is quite rare and is not a patrimonial verb, as one might have thought, but rather a learned one, a loanword from Classical (written) Latin. Sp. espirar which means primarily ‘to breathe out, exhale’, much like the original verb exspīrāre, which now only has figurative senses, as we shall see. English had a cognate for this verb, namely the verb spire, also with that literal meaning as well as some figurative ones, but it is fully obsolete today. Sp. espirar is also quite rare today and it is probably fair to say that it is archaic if not obsolete, though dictionaries do not say it is.

Some of the English-Spanish cognates that come from these Latin verbs are quite close to each other in meaning, i.e. they are what we call ‘good friends’, but others are not, as we will see, since they are what we call ‘false friends’ or ‘semi-false friends’ (cf. Part I, Chapter 1, §1.2). The similarities can be attributed for the most part to the fact that these loanwords typically came by means of French and haven’t changed their meaning much. We will also see that often the meanings that have survived in English and Spanish are the figurative ones of these verbs, not the literal ones.

Eng. spirit and Sp. espíritu

Before analyzing the verbs derived from Lat. spīrāre, let us look at another Latin word that contained the same root because it was derived from the verb, namely the noun spīrĭtus. Its main meaning was ‘breathing, breath, air’ but it also had a figurative metaphorical sense, namely ‘spirit, ghost’, and it is with that meaning that this Latin word has been passed on to English and Spanish, as spirit and espíritu, respectively (cf. also French esprit, Italian spirito, Portuguese espirito). This word has been part of the Christian vocabulary since it came to be used in the Latin Vulgate version of the New Testament of the Christian Bible to translate Ancient Greek πνεῦμα (pneuma) in the original version of the New Testament, which itself was a translation of Biblical Hebrew רוּחַ (rúach) ‘wind; breath; spirit’, cf. רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (rūaḥ haqqōḏeš) ‘the Holy Spirit’ or ‘spirit of holiness’. As to what exactly the words Eng. spirit and Sp. espíritu means today, dictionaries give several definitions, starting with ‘the non-physical part of a person which is the seat of emotions and character’ (which may or may not survive the body); ‘the prevailing or typical quality or mood’, as in the nation's egalitarian spirit; ‘courage, energy, and determination’, and a few more (COED).

Although Eng. spirit and Sp. espíritu are ‘close friends’, i.e. have very similar primary meanings, the two are not fully equivalent. When Eng. spirit has the sense of ‘mood, feelings’, it translates best as moral or humor, as in He’s in good spirits ~ Sp. Está de buen humor; or That raised his spirit ~ Sp. Eso le subió la moral. Also, when Eng. spirit has the sense of ‘force, vigor’, it is best translated as energía or ánimo, for example, as in They played with great spirit ~ Sp. Jugaron con gran energía. When Eng. spirit is used as a synonym of ghost, the best Spanish equivalent is typically fantasma, not espíritu. Finally, Eng. spirit is also found in idiomatic expressions, such as That’s the spirit!, which can be translated by Spanish idiomatic expressions such as ¡Así me gusta!

GO TO PART 9


Thursday, August 30, 2018

Inspiration and perspiration, Part 7: The suffixes Eng. -(a)tion ~ Sp. -(a)ción (f)

[This entry comes from Chapter 10, "Inspiration and Perspiration", of Part II of the open-source textbook Spanish-English Cognates: An Unconventional Introduction to Spanish Linguistics.]


Verbs derived from nouns in Eng. -ion and Sp. -ión


Both English and Spanish have derived verbs from some of their nouns in Eng. ‑tion/‑sion or Sp. ‑ción/‑sión. In the case of English, these new coinages or lexicalizations are what is known as conversions (zero-derivations), without any morphological changes such as addition of affixes made to the original nouns (cf. Part I, Chapter 5, §5.7). This typically happened when there was no verb associated with the noun ending in ‑ion. For example, English developed the verb to auction from the noun auction, which had been borrowed from Lat. auctĭo ‘an increasing’, a noun derived from the stem auct‑ of the passive participle auctus of the verb augēre ‘to increase’. The noun auction was borrowed from Latin in the late 16th century with the meaning it still has, namely ‘a sale by increase of bids’. Then, English developed the verb to auction from the noun in the early 19th century. (Spanish does not have any cognates of this word. The verb to auction translates into Spanish as subastar and the noun auction as subasta.)

The creation of a verb out of a noun in ‑tion/‑sion can also happen when there is an associated verb if the two words have different enough meanings. For instance, the noun vacation is obviously related to the verb vacate, but the connection between their meanings is not obvious anymore and, thus, English speakers felt justified in developing the verb to vacation out of the noun vacation, with the meaning ‘to take or spend a vacation’ (AHD), as in We like to vacation in Maine. This was warranted because the noun vacation and the verb vacate were borrowed independently from each other, with meanings that are not obviously related to a speaker of English (cf. Part II, Chapter 45). The noun vacation was borrowed from Old French in the late 14th century with the meaning ‘freedom from obligations, leisure, release’, whereas the verb to vacation was developed in English from that noun in the 19th century. The verb to vacate was borrowed independently in the mid-17th century from Latin vacatus, passive participle of vacāre ‘to be empty’, with the meaning ‘to make void, to annul’.[a]

English has a number of verbs derived from nouns in ‑tion or ‑sión. The following are the main ones:

auction
audition
caution
commission
decommission
disillusion
envision
malfunction
mention
motion
partition
petition
position
proposition
provision
question
ration
reapportion
recondition
requisition
sanction
section
station
suction
transition
vacation





Spanish too has a few such derived verbs. Spanish too does the derivation without adding any derivational affixes to the nouns, but in Spanish inflectional suffixes must be added to any verb, such as the ‑ar infinitival ending and all the rest of the inflectional, conjugational endings that indicate tense, person, and mood. There are 75 verbs that end in *cionar in Spanish, according to one count, of those, the following 36 are quite common. Additionally, there are at most 42 verbs that end in *sionar, of which 22 are quite common. The common ones are listed below:
accionar
acondicionar
aficionar
aleccionar
ambicionar
aprovisionar
coaccionar
cohesionar
coleccionar
colisionar
comisionar
condicionar
confeccionar
conmocionar
contorsionar
contusionar
convulsionar
decepcionar
desilusionar
diseccionar
distorsionar
emocionar
erosionar
estacionar
evolucionar
expansionar
explosionar
extorsionar
fraccionar
funcionar
fusionar
ilusionar
implosionar
impresionar
incursionar
inspeccionar
lesionar
mencionar
obsesionar
ocasionar
ovacionar
perfeccionar
polucionar
posicionar
presionar
promocionar
proporcionar
racionar
reaccionar
relacionar
revolucionar
sancionar
seccionar
seleccionar
solucionar
subvencionar
succionar
tensionar
traicionar




Note that not many of these verbs have related verbs in English that end in ‑tion, though some do, such as Eng. function ~ Sp. funcionar (semi-good friends), Eng. mention ~ Sp. mencionar, Eng. ration ~ Sp. racionar, Eng. sanction ~ Sp. sancionar, and Eng. section ~ Sp. seccionar. Note also that not all of these verbs have a meaning that is transparently derived from the meaning of the noun, though most of them do. For instance, the noun proporción means ‘proportion’ whereas the verb proporcionar means primarily ‘to provide, supply, dispense, etc.’ (though it can also be used, rarely, with the meaning ‘to proportion’, that is, ‘adjust so as to have a particular or suitable relationship to something else’, COED). Note also that English does not have equivalent verbs in ‑ion for some of these nouns, which is obviously due to the fact that it already has related verbs. Thus, from perfección ‘perfection’, Spanish derived the verb perfeccionar, whose meaning equivalent in English is to perfect, not *to perfection, which does not exist. That is because English derived the verb to perfect from the adjective perfect (Sp. perfecto/a) instead of from the noun perfection. Other similar cases are Sp. promocionar, from promoción ‘promotion’, equivalent to Eng. promote, and Sp. seleccionar (from selección ‘selection’), equivalent to Eng. select.

In addition to the verbs listed above, there are a few verbs that also seem to be derived from the noun but with the somewhat meaningless prefix a‑ added to it, such as the verb apasionar ‘to excite, fascinate, thrill’, which is obviously derived from the noun pasión ‘passion’ (cf. a‑pasion‑ar). In Spanish, it is common for verbs derived from nouns or adjectives to add either the prefix a‑ or en‑, which does not seem to add any meaning to the whole, e.g. alargar ‘to lengthen’ from largo ‘long’ and engrasar ‘to grease’ from grasa ‘grease’ (cf. Part I, Chapter 5, §5.6.1.1). Besides apasionar, the main verbs that follow this pattern of adding an a‑ to a verb derived from a noun with the ‑ión suffix are the following:

·   acondicionar ‘to equip, set up; to improve; to get something ready for use’, from condición ‘condition’ (a synonymous expression is poner en condiciones ‘to get ready’)
·   aprisionar ‘to imprison; to trap; to hold tight’ from prisión ‘prison’
·   aprovisionar ‘to provision, to supply with provisions’, from provisión ‘provision, supply’
·   aleccionar ‘to teach, instruct, train’, from lección ‘lesson’

GO TO PART 8



[a] In some cases in which there is both a noun and a verb in English that end in ‑tion, it is possible that the derivation did not happen in English first, but rather in French, from which English borrowed the verb. Thus, for instance, the English noun mention first appeared in the early 14th century. The verb to mention is not attested until more than 200 years later, around 1520. The French verb mentionner ‘to mention’, derived from the noun, is attested almost a century earlier than the English verb to mention, and it is possible that English borrowed the verb from French or that it calqued it from that language

Inspiration and perspiration, Part 6: The suffixes Eng. -(a)tion ~ Sp. -(a)ción (e)

[This entry comes from Chapter 10, "Inspiration and Perspiration", of Part II of the open-source textbook Spanish-English Cognates: An Unconventional Introduction to Spanish Linguistics.]


English words that end in -tion and -sion


There are over two thousand words that end in ‑ation in English (2,587 by one count), quite a considerable number.[1] The vast majority of these words are Latin loanwords, not English creations by means of this Latinate suffix, and many if not most of them, have Spanish cognates. Indeed, this is one of the most noticeable sources of English-Spanish cognates, one which allows English-speaking learners of Spanish access to thousands of Spanish words with relative ease.

In addition, English typically has borrowed the corresponding verb along with the derived noun in ‑tion, such as inspire along with inspiration, and contemplate along with contemplation, something which makes the suffix quite ‘transparent’ (see above and Part I, Chapter 5). Latinate verbs in English come mostly in three flavors, all of them exemplified in Figure 119 above (cf. Part I, Chapter 5, §5.12.2):

·      those that end in ‑ate, such as contemplate and frustrate
·      those that end in (a silent) ‑e, such as inspire and explore (this includes many verbs in ‑ify, such as classify, and in ‑ize, such as organize); and
·      those that have lost all vestiges of an inflectional Latin ending, such as despair

Verbs that end in ‑ate in English were taken directly from Latin, since traditionally, when English borrows a Latin verb from written Latin, it borrows the past participle form, which often ends in ‑atus (in the masculine), and changes this ending to ‑ate, in order to match the ending of early borrowings of Latin verbs that were acquired through Old French. The other two types of Latinate verbs typically came into English through French, namely from an Old French infinitive. In Table 159 above, you can see that 3 of the 10 verbs we saw there end in ‑ate and 6 end in ‑e.[a]

In some cases, there is no matching verb for a ‑tion English noun. Thus, in English there is no verb *to nate that goes along with the noun nation (cf. Sp. nación). In Latin, the noun natĭo (acc. natĭōnem) was indeed associated with a verb, namely nāscī ‘to be born’, a deponent verb whose passive participle was nātus (its principal parts were nāscor, nāscī, and nātus sum). The Latin noun natĭō thus meant, first of all, ‘birth’, but also, by extension, ‘race, nation’.[b]

Other ‘orphaned’ English nouns that end in ‑ation (without a corresponding English verb) are caption (Sp. leyenda, pie de foto, título, subtítulo), question (cf. Sp. cuestión), section (Sp. sección), station (Sp. estación), and caution (Sp. cautela, precaución, prudencia, etc.). In the following table you can see a few more examples of such words that do not have a verb associated with them in English or Spanish, along with the Latin verb they were associated with.

English
Spanish

Latin
Pass. Part.
Infin.

function
función

functĭo
fūnctus
fungī
‘to perform’
station
estación

statĭo
status
stāre
‘to stand; to stay’
lotion
loción

lōtĭo
lōtus/ lăvātus
lavāre
‘to wash’
potion
poción

pōtĭo
pōtus
pōtāre
‘to drink’

The following is a list of what are probably the 660 most common English words ending in -tion (all derived from this Latin suffix). This list is extracted from one containing 835 words that are suitable for use in the game Scrabble (from The Free Dictionary). The words that have been removed are very uncommon words or those derived by prefixation from other words and whose meaning is highly predictable, such as resegregation and antipolution (very common and lexicalized words derived by prefixation have been kept, such as indisposition or dehydration, which are related to disposition and hydration). Some rare English words were kept on this list if they had common Spanish cognates, such as lection, oration, and natation (cf. Sp. lección ‘lesson’, oración ‘sentence’, and natación ‘swimming’).


abbreviation
ablation
abolition
abortion
absorption
abstraction
acceleration
acclimatization
accommodation
accreditation
accretion
acculturation
accumulation
accusation
acquisition
action
adaptation
adaption
addiction
addition
administration
admiration
adoption
adoration
adulation
aeration
affection
affirmation
agglomeration
agglutination
agitation
alienation
allegation
alphabetization
alteration
amalgamation
ambition
ammunition
amortization
amplification
animation
annihilation
anticipation
application
apportion
appreciation
appropriation
approximation
arbitration
argumentation
articulation
aspiration
assertion
assimilation
association
assumption
attention
attraction
attribution
attrition
auction
audition
augmentation
authorization
automation
automatization
aviation
bastion
calcification
calculation
calibration
cancellation
capitalization
capitulation
caption
carbonization
carnation
categorization
causation
caution
certification
cessation
circulation
circumlocution
circumscription
circumspection
citation
civilization
classification
coaction
coalition
cogeneration
cognition
collation
collection
colonization
combination
combustion
commemoration
commendation
commiseration
commotion
communication
compensation
competition
compilation
complementation
completion
complication
composition
computation
computerization
concentration
conception
condemnation
condensation
condition
confederation
configuration
confirmation
conflagration
confrontation
conglomeration
congratulation
congregation
conjunction
connection
conscription
consecration
conservation
consideration
consolation
consolidation
constellation
consternation
constipation
constitution
constriction
construction
consultation
consummation
consumption
contamination
contemplation
contention
continuation
contraception
contraction
contradiction
contravention
contribution
convention
conversation
conviction
cooperation
coordination
corporation
correction
correlation
corruption
creation
cultivation
damnation
deception
declaration
decomposition
deconstruction
decoration
dedication
deduction
defenestration
definition
deflation
deformation
degeneration
degradation
dehydration
dejection
delegation
deletion
deliberation
demagnetization
democratization
demolition
demonstration
demotion
denomination
denunciation
depletion
deportation
deposition
depreciation
deprivation
description
desensitization
desertification
desertion
designation
desperation
destination
destruction
detection
detention
determination
detoxification
deviation
devotion
dichotomization
dictation
diction
differentiation
digestion
dilation
dilution
direction
disarticulation
discoloration
discontinuation
discretion
discrimination
disinformation
disinhibition
disintegration
dislocation
disorganization
disorientation
dispensation
disposition
disproportion
dissatisfaction
dissertation
dissipation
dissociation
dissolution
distillation
distinction
distortion
distraction
distribution
documentation
domination
donation
dramatization
duplication
duration
dysfunction
edition
education
ejection
elation
election
elevation
emancipation
emotion
emulation
equation
erection
erudition
eruption
estimation
evacuation
evocation
evolution
examination
exasperation
excavation
exception
excommunication
excretion
execution
exemplification
exemption
exertion
exhaustion
exhibition
exhilaration
expectation
expedition
experimentation
expiration
explanation
exploitation
exploration
exponentiation
exposition
extinction
extortion
extraction
extradition
facilitation
faction
familiarization
fascination
federation
fermentation
fertilization
fibrillation
fiction
filtration
fixation
flotation
formation
fortification
foundation
fraction
ragmentation
friction
fruition
frustration
function
generalization
generation
gentrification
gestation
gesticulation
gradation
graduation
gratification
gumption
gyration
hallucination
hesitation
hospitalization
humiliation
hypercorrection
hyperinflation
ideation
identification
ignition
illumination
illustration
imagination
imitation
implantation
implication
importation
imposition
improvisation
inaction
inauguration
incarnation
inception
inclination
incubation
indemnification
indication
indignation
indisposition
individuation
induction
infarction
infection
infiltration
inflammation
inflation
information
inhibition
initiation
injection
injunction
innovation
inscription
insertion
inspection
inspiration
installation
institution
instruction
instrumentation
insulation
insurrection
integration
intention
interaction
interception
interconnection
interiorization
interpretation
intersection
intoxication
introduction
introspection
intuition
invention
investigation
invitation
irritation
isolation
iteration
junction
jurisdiction
justification
juxtaposition
lactation
lateralization
lection
legation
legislation
lenition
libation
liberation
ligation
limitation
location
locution
lotion
magnetization
magnification
maladaptation
malnutrition
manifestation
manipulation
masculinization
masturbation
mediation
medication
meditation
menstruation
mention
migration
miniaturization
miscegenation
misconception
modification
mortification
motion
motivation
multiplication
munition
mutation
mystification
narration
natation
nation
navigation
negation
negotiation
neutralization
nomination
nonfiction
nonintervention
notation
notification
notion
nullification
nutrition
objection
obligation
observation
obstruction
occupation
operation
opposition
optimization
option
oration
orchestration
organization
orientation
ornamentation
ovation
overconsumption
overpopulation
overstimulation
oxidation
participation
partition
pasteurization
penetration
perception
perdition
perfection
persecution
perseveration
personification
perspiration
petition
plantation
polarization
pollution
population
portion
position
postproduction
potion
precipitation
preconception
precondition
predation
predestination
prediction
predilection
predisposition
premeditation
preoccupation
preparation
preregistration
prescription
presentation
pressurization
presumption
prevention
prioritization
privation
probation
proclamation
production
prohibition
projection
promotion
pronunciation
propagation
proportion
proposition
prosecution
proselytization
prostitution
protection
provocation
publication
pulsation
punctuation
punition
purification
qualification
question
quotation
radiation
ration
rationalization
reaction
realization
recapitulation
reception
reciprocation
reclamation
recognition
recollection
recombination
recommendation
reconciliation
reconstruction
recreation
recrimination
redaction
redemption
redistribution
reduction
reflection
reformation
regeneration
registration
regulation
reincarnation
rejection
relation
relaxation
remediation
remuneration
rendition
renunciation
reorganization
repetition
replication
representation
reproduction
reputation
reservation
resignation
resolution
restitution
restoration
restriction
resumption
resurrection
retardation
retention
retribution
revalorization
revelation
reverberation
revolution
rogation
rotation
salvation
sanction
sanitation
satisfaction
saturation
secretion
section
sedation
sedimentation
sedition
seduction
segmentation
segregation
selection
sensation
separation
sequestration
sexploitation
signification
simulation
situation
solution
specialization
specification
speculation
starvation
station
sterilization
stigmatization
strangulation
stratification
subscription
substitution
suburbanization
suction
suggestion
summation
superimposition
superposition
superstation
superstition
synchronization
systematization
taxation
teleportation
temptation
termination
traction
tradition
transaction
transcription
transfiguration
transformation
transition
translation
translocation
transmutation
transportation
transposition
triangulation
tuition
unction
vacation
vaccination
valuation
variation
vegetation
ventilation
verification
vexation
vibration
violation
vocation
volition
workstation




The following list contains 166 common (non-rare) English words ending in ‑sion. The original list, from the same source, had 255 words. Some of these nouns end in ‑sion with only one s, but some of them have two s’s. The double s in these English words came from a Latin t+t, e.g. mission (from Lat. mit+t+us) or from a Latin d+t, e.g. cession (from Lat. ced+t+us).


abrasion
adhesion
admission
aggression
allusion
animadversion
apprehension
ascension
aspersion
aversion
cession
circumcision
cohesion
collision
collusion
commission
compassion
comprehension
compression
compulsion
concession
concision
conclusion
concussion
condescension
confession
confusion
contusion
conversion
convulsion
corrosion
decision
declension
decommission
decompression
delusion
depression
derision
diffusion
digression
dimension
discussion
disillusion
dispersion
dispossession
dissension
dissuasion
distension
diversion
division
effusion
egression
elision
elusion
emersion
emission
emulsion
envision
erosion
evasion
excision
exclusion
excursion
expansion
explosion
expression
expulsion
extension
extroversion
fission
fusion
hypertension
hypotension
illusion
immersion
implosion
imprecision
impression
incision
inclusion
incomprehension
incursion
indecision
infusion
intercession
intermission
intersession
interspersion
intromission
introversion
intrusion
invasion
inversion
lesion
mansion
manumission
misapprehension
misimpression
mission
nonaggression
obsession
occasion
occlusion
omission
oppression
overexpansion
overextension
passion
pension
percussion
permission
persuasion
pervasion
perversion
possession
preadmission
precision
preclusion
prepossession
pretension
prevision
procession
profession
profusion
progression
propulsion
provision
readmission
recession
reclusion
reconversion
recursion
regression
remission
repercussion
repossession
reprehension
repression
repulsion
resubmission
retransmission
retrocession
retrogression
revision
revulsion
secession
seclusion
session
suasion
subdivision
submersion
submission
subversion
succession
supervision
suppression
suspension
television
tension
torsion
transfusion
transgression
transmission
version
vision


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[a] The verbal ‑ate ending is quite common. Like we said, it comes from the Latin perfect passive participle suffixes of first conjugation verbs, masc. ‑ātus, fem. ‑āta, and neut. ‑ātum, which are equivalent to the Spanish past participle endings masc. ‑ado fem. ‑ada. By the time these words reached English from French, the final e in the spelling was already not pronounced. In fact, verbs with this suffix in Middle English were spelled ‑at, not ‑ate.

Note that besides the verbal ending ‑ate, there are three other ‑ate suffixes recognized in English, cf. Part I, Chapter 8, §8.5.3). This main alternative suffix ‑ate does not create verbs in English, but rather adjectives, such as affectionate or fortunate, or nouns, such as electorate, doctorate, or rabbinate. Note that these two ‑ate endings has a different pronunciation from the verbal ‑ate, namely [‑ət], instead of [ˌeɪ̯t], cf. the noun graduate [ˈɡɹæ.ʤu.ət] vs. the verb graduate [ˈɡɹæ.ʤu.ˌeɪ̯t]. For the nouns there is sometimes a Spanish cognate that ends in ‑ado, the descendant of the Latin suffix ‑atus, e.g. electorado, doctorado. (The noun and adjective apostate, cf. Sp. apóstata, is not derived from the past participle, but rather from Lat. apostata, a borrowing from Greek. It means ‘a person who renounces a belief or principle’, COED.) Finally, we should mention that in the field of chemistry, there is yet a third type of ‑ate suffix, used for nouns but pronounced like the verbal ‑ate, namely [ˌeɪ̯t]. It is found in words such as phosphate, chlorate, or nitrate. Its meaning is ‘a salt or ester, especially of an acid with a corresponding name ending in ‑ic’ (OD).

[b] The Spanish verb nacer ‘to be born’ comes from a Vulgar Latin, regularized version of nāscī, namely nascere. And the noun that refers to the act of being born is not nación, but rather the derived form nacimiento ‘birth’.

Greek letters in the names of fraternities and honor societies

[This entry is an excerpt from Chapter 52, "The names of fraternities and honor societies", of Part II of the open-source textbook...