As we saw earlier in the chapter, bacteria have traditionally been classified according to their shape (Sp. forma), that is their morphology (Sp. morfología). The two main types are round bacteria and long bacteria, though there are other minor types, such as spiral-shaped, called spirillum (Sp. espirilo), or tightly coiled, spirochaetes (Sp. espiroquetas). Round bacteria are known as cocci (sing. coccus, Sp. coco), from Gk. κόκκος (kókkos) ‘grain, seed’, whereas long bacteria are known as bacilli (sing. bacillus [bə.ˈsɪ.l.əs], Sp. bacilo), from Lat. bacillus, which meant ‘little staff, wand’ and was a diminutive of Latin baculum or baculus ‘walking stick, staff’. As you can see, the names of types of bacteria in English tend to be identical to their New Latin name, whereas Spanish tends to adapt the name to Spanish phonology and orthography (cf. Part I, Chapters 8 and 10).
Another life-threatening illness in which GAS is involved, by means of the toxins the bacteria produces, is Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), which is often fatal (Sp. síndrome del choque tóxico). TSS can also be caused by toxins from Staphylococcus aureus (see §34.3.38). The streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is sometimes referred to as toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS).
The other major type of streptococcal infections are Group B infections, caused by Group B Streptococcus (GBS). These are bacteria found normally in the intestines (gastrointestinal tract), the vagina, and the rectal area. The main infection causing bacterium in this group is Streptococcus agalactiae. The main infections this group causes are postpartum infection and neonatal sepsis. Infections are rare, however, and are almost always associated with underlying abnormalities. In older people, it is associated with congestive heart failure in bedridden patients. Symptoms of GBS infection are:
· pneumonia (see above)
· meningitis (see above)
· bacteremia (see above)
· skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI), also known as skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI)) (Sp. infección de la piel y de tejidos blandos); they include simple abscesses (Sp. abceso), impetiginous lesions (‘of, relating to, or like impetigo’, WNTIU, see above), furuncles (boils; Sp. furúnculo, divieso), and cellulitis (Sp. celulitis, see above), or more complicated infected ulcers, burns, and major abscesses.
· pressure ulcers (pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, or decubitus ulcers) (Sp. escara, úlcera de decúbito): ‘an ulceration of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by poor circulation due to prolonged pressure on body parts, esp. bony protuberances, occurring in bedridden or immobile patients’ (RHW); the most common name in English for this condition is bedsore [ˈbɛd.ˌsɔɹ] and in Spanish, escara, which is a learned loanword from Lat. eschăra ‘scar, scab’, from Gk. ἐσχάρα (eskhara) ‘earth, brazier; scab caused by a burn, scab’ (Sp. asqueroso ‘disgusting’ seems to come from Vulgar Latin *escharosus ‘full of scabs’ (cf. Lat. Vulgar *ascara, *scara), and the nun asco ‘disgust’ seems to be a back-formation from this adjective, though the fact that it is asco and not ásquero might have been by the influence of an earlier word for this meaning, namely usgo, which was derived from an unattested verbo *osgar ‘to hate’, from a Vulgar Latin *osicare, derived from Lat. ōdisse ‘to hate, detest, dislike’ (cf. Corominas)
· colonization of diabetic foot infections (Sp. colonización de infections de pie diabético): the term diabetic foot (Sp. pie diabético) refers to a number of pathologies in the foot resulting from diabetes mellitus [daɪ̯.ə.ˈbi.ɾiz mə.ˈlɪ.ɾəs] (Sp. diabetes mellitus) or its complications, such as infection, diabetic foot ulcer, or neuropathic osteoarthropathy; diabetes is ‘a disorder of the metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of urine’ (COED); the name for this disease, Eng. diabetes [ˌdaɪ̯.ə.ˈbi.ɾiz] ~ Sp. diabetes [di̯a.ˈβe.t̪es], is a New Latin word that comes from the διαβήτης (diabḗtēs) ‘passing through’, a participle of the verb διαβαίνω (diabaínō) ‘to pass through’
· osteomyelitis (Sp. osteomielitis): ‘a usually bacterial infection of bone and bone marrow in which the resulting inflammation can lead to a reduction of blood supply to the bone’ (AHD); such an infection ‘may result in the death of bone tissue’ (MWC); the name of this disease is a New Latin word derived from Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon; root: osté‑) ’bone’, Ancient Greek μυελός (muelós; root muel‑) ‘marrow’ and the adjective-forming suffix -ῖτις (-îtis) which in medicine has come to be used to mean ‘inflammation’.
· arthritis [ɑɹ.ˈθɹaɪ̯.ɾɪs] (Sp. artritis): ‘inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. It occurs in various forms, such as bacterial arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis’ (AHD); the word arthritis is a New Latin word derived from ἄρθρον (árthron) ‘a joint’ and the New Latin suffix ‑itis that means ‘inflammation’
· discitis or diskitis (Sp. discitis, disquitis): an infection and inflammation of the intervertebral disks cartilage disks separating the spine’s vertebrae; the term is derived from the English word disk or disc (the latter is a Latinate British spelling variant of this word) or its Spanish cognate disco and the suffix ‑itis that in medical language stands for ‘inflammation’; discitis can be caused by viral or bacterial infections as well as by an autoimmune disorder
· chorioamnionitis or intra-amniotic infection (IAI) (Sp. corioamnionitis, infección intraamniótica, infección ovular, or amnionitis): infection and inflammation of the fetal membranes (inner amnion and outer chorion) and the amniotic fluid; it may happen during vaginal examinations in the last month of pregnancy or during (prolonged) labor. The word chorioamnionitis is a New Latin one derived from the Greek words. The term amnion [ˈæm.nɪ.ən] (Sp. amnios) is the name of ‘the innermost membrane that encloses the embryo of a mammal, bird, or reptile’ (COED); it comes from Lat. amnion ‘membrane around a fetus’, which comes from Gk. ἀμνίον (amnion) ‘bowl in which the blood of victims was caught’. The term chorion ['kɔ.ɹɪ.ǝn] (Sp. corion) refers to ‘the outermost membrane surrounding the embryo of a reptile, bird, or mammal’ (COED) and it comes from Ancient Gk. χόριον (khórion) ‘membrane surrounding the fetus, afterbirth’.
· endometritis [ˌɛn.doʊ̯.mɪ.ˈtʰɹtraɪ̯.ɾɪs] (Sp. endometritis): inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, typically caused by bacterial infection; the term endometritis is obviously derived from the term endometrium and the suffix ‑itis. The term endometrium (Sp. endometrio) is a New Latin medical term for the mucous membrane lining the uterus (womb) of mammals. It is formed from the Latin prefix endo‑ ‘inner’ and the Late Latin word for ‘womb’ metrium, which was a loan from Ancient Greek adjective μήτριον (mḗtrion) ‘of a mother’, derived from the noun μήτηρ (mḗtēr) ‘mother’.
· urinary tract infections (UTI) (Sp. infección urinaria): ‘infection of any part of the urinary tract, esp. the urethra or bladder, usually caused by a bacterium… and often precipitated by increased sexual activity, vaginitis, enlargement of the prostate, or stress’ (RHWU). Many types of bacteria can cause UTIs, including GBS, though most typically it is caused by Escherichia coli.